Since 1995 there have been a few Canadian band encounters, including a colour–marked individual captured during spring migration at Long Point that was originally banded the previous summer as a breeding adult at a traditional site about 10 km northwest of the banding station (Long Point Bird Observatory unpubl. Urban flight: understanding individual and population–level responses of Nearctic–Neotropical migratory birds to urbanization. Within a physiographic region, this species exhibits a high degree of habitat specificity at various scales (Bakerman and Rodewald 2006). The explosive peet-sah, and its high-pitched twitter as it flies from perch to perch, are both distinctive. records 1960–2008). 395 pp. Acadian Flycatchers are also being reported more widely in atlas projects currently underway in Ohio and Pennsylvania compared to the previous state atlases completed in the 1980s (Ohio BBA II 2008; Pennsylvania BBA 2008). Vagrants have occurred in Quebec and British Columbia (Godfrey 1986; Gauthier and Aubry 1996). The bird lives in the understory of woods with a closed canopy. Status historyDesignated Endangered in April 1994. Robinson. A Preliminary Conservation Action Plan for Vulnerable, Threatened and Endangered Birds in the Carolinian Forests of Ontario: discussion document for Carolinian Canada. In the absence of comparable quantitative data sets, recent trends in the amount of forest and interior forest within the Canadian breeding range of the Acadian Flycatcher are difficult to assess. At least in some settings, productivity of this species is negatively impacted by openings in the forest canopy, anthropogenic edges, increasing forest fragmentation, and urbanization (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Bakerman and Rodewald 2006; Hoover et al. This small songbird is very similar in appearance to other Empidonax flycatchers and is best distinguished by its distinctive peet–sa song and other characteristic vocalizations. COSEWIC Status: Endangered
In contrast, owing to high population densities, individual territories in Pennsylvania tend to be occupied perennially despite turnover in breeding individuals (Woolfenden et al. Acadian flycatchers don't have any known negative economic impact on humans. 706 pp. Of the dozen or more maddeningly similar species in the Empidonax genus, the cheery Acadian Flycatcher is the common one of mature forests of the Southeast and Mid-Atlantic U.S. At Long Point, it is an irregular rare spring migrant, with a maximum of 8 individuals banded in a year (Long Point Bird Observatory unpubl. 2008. 2005). The best available information on the extent of forest cover for this region is Ontario Land Cover mapping, which uses classified Landsat 7 satellite imagery collected between 1999 and 2002 (OMNR 2006). The Acadian Flycatcher population in Canada is very small and annually occurs at no more than about 20 sites scattered across a relatively large area (35,000 km²). Strong site fidelity has also been reported on the wintering grounds (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). 1989. Heagy, A., and D. Badzinski. 2005). McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. For example, until recently, flowering dogwood was a fairly common shrub in parts of southern Ontario within the Acadian Flycatcher’s primary breeding range. COSEWIC Status Criteria: D1
Enter Bird's Name in Search Box: www.birds-of-north-america.net: Life, Habitat & Pictures of the Acadian Flycatcher. A pilot banding station at Pinery Provincial Park on the southeast shore of Lake Huron captured five birds in spring 2007 (Ausable Bird Observatory unpubl. 2007; PIF 2008; Sauer et al. Atlas of climate change effects in 150 bird species of the Eastern United States (PDF, 651 KB). [Annette M Page; Michael D Cadman; Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.] Conference Casebook. 19 pp. Martin, D. 2005. Website: [accessed March 2009]. McCracken, J., pers. Martin, D. 2001. Scale–dependent habitat use of Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in central Ohio. Individuals banded as breeding adults in southern Ontario and elsewhere show a high degree of site fidelity by both males and females, with returning birds often re–occupying the same territory (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Recovery Team unpubl. IRF 18610–Contract No. What is NCC doing to conserve habitat for this species? Whitehead, D.R. [Accessed September 2008]. Its breeding habitat in Canada is important to many other species at risk. Reproductive success of Acadian Flycatcher in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia. Due to ease of access and proximity to known sites, survey effort has been concentrated in the extensive public forests in Norfolk County, wooded ravines in Elgin County, and public lands within a few large forest complexes elsewhere in the Carolinian region. The wintering range of the Acadian Flycatcher extends from the Caribbean slope of Nicaragua, south through Costa Rica, Panama, northern and western Columbia, northwestern Venezuela and western Ecuador (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; see Figure 1). The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is a volunteer–based program designed to monitor trends in North American breeding bird populations. Sutherland, G.G. Online Version 6.3.2, Updated December 2008. Selva Verde provides opportunities to see species such as the Keel-billed Toucan, White-winged Becard, Sunbittern, Acadian Flycatcher and the endangered Great Green Macaw; as well as mammals including Howler and White faced monkeys, Agoutis and Coatis; amphibians and reptiles such as the big Green Iguanas, Emerald Basiliscus and the popular Red- eyed Tree Frogs, Green and Black Frogs … It is often found in well-wooded swamps and ravines. and N.K. Total survey effort in each of these coordinated surveys was similar, although there were differences in the sites covered. website: [accessed February 2009]. Acadian Flycatchers have not been confirmed breeding on federal lands in Ontario. 2004). Page, A.M. and M.D. Riley, E.A. Draft National Recovery Strategy for Carolinan Woodlands and Associated Species at Risk: Phase 1. 86 pp. Dave Martin, Debbie Badzinski, Jon McCracken, and Angela McConnell provided copies of unpublished reports and records prepared for the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team. In the second New York atlas, there was an effort–adjusted 47% increase (not statistically significant) in the number of atlas squares with Acadian Flycatcher breeding evidence for the 2000–05 period compared to the 1980–85 atlas (Smith 2008). The Canadian distribution of this species was mapped by the first and second Ontario Breeding Birds Atlas (OBBA1 and OBBA2) projects, carried out between 1981–85 and 2001–05, respectively (Cadman et al. Robert Craig and Don Sutherland provided Acadian Flycatcher information from the Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre database. The latter rate may represent ideal conditions, because no cowbird parasitism occurred, nest predation rates (41%) were moderate, and all females re–nested at least once (Fauth and Cabe 2005). Required avoidance period is May 25 - August 20 . Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. In tableland settings, it nests in mature upland beech–maple woods and lowland soft maple swamps, often at the interface of wetland and upland knolls (Martin 2007; D. Sutherland pers. This work contributes to and supplements related recovery and conservation efforts. In Canada, the breeding range of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) is limited to southern Ontario. Production note:COSEWIC would like to acknowledgeAudrey Heagy for writing the status report on the Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, in Canada, prepared under contract with Environment Canada, overseen and edited by Jon McCracken, Co–chair, COSEWIC Birds Specialist Subcommittee. Hetzel, J.M. data). 2007. Extrapolated from counts of territorial and paired males during directed searches of known and potential habitat in southern Ontario conducted in 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The wintering range of this Neotropical migrant extends from the Caribbean slope of Nicaragua, south through Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. It is protected by the Canada National Parks Act where it occurs in Point Pelee National Park. It winters in tropical forests from Nicaragua south to western Ecuador, and has an estimated breeding population of 4.5 million individuals. Existing protection, status, and ranks COSEWIC assessed this species as Endangered … Criterion A (Decline in Total Number of Mature Individuals): Does not meet criterion. Forest cover within the breeding range of this species in Ontario has not exhibited similar recovery trends to those in Northern New England over recent decades. Is the total population severely fragmented? Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. The Ontario Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA 2007) and the federal Species at Risk Act do not currently afford protection to Acadian Flycatcher habitat, although designation of critical habitat on federal lands is anticipated in the near future. 2008. Nests in Ontario and elsewhere are situated 3 to 9 m high in small trees, saplings and shrubs (Friesen et al. Ohio Breeding Bird Atlas (BBA) II 2008. 262 pp. Acadian Flycatcher and Hooded Warbler Recovery Activities: 1997 Field Surveys in Southwestern Ontario. 2 pp. Provincial Policy Statement. Its ability to use different nest trees may be important because some of the preferred nest tree species (e.g., hemlock and beech) are being decimated by invasive forest pests (Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and beech bark disease, Nectria gallingea) in the northeastern United States, and similar tree mortality is expected to occur in southern Ontario within the next decade. Ash-throated flycatcher. In Canada and Ontario, the Acadian Flycatcher is ranked as Imperiled (N2B and S2B; NatureServe 2008; NHIC 2008). Protection |
The opportunity for extra–pair copulations and conspecific social interactions may influence the selection of breeding sites (Woolfenden et al. 1909. 28 pp. Catalogue CW69-14/5-2010E-PDF ISBN 978-1-100-15955-3 Recycled paper. 1994; Larson et al. 123:368–382. Verbal communication with A. Heagy. Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Given the range of reported year–to–year fluctuations in the Ontario population (±50%), the current Acadian Flycatcher breeding population in Canada is estimated to be approximately 50 (range of 25–75) breeding pairs (including some polygynous pairs), or 64 (range 32–100) territorial males, or 112 (60–180) adults. 1996. Counts of the number of Acadian Flycatcher territorial males detected in directed searches in 1997, 1998, 2002, and 2007 are available (Table 2). Acadian Flycatcher habitat selection in south–western Ontario. The incubation period is about 14 days; incubation and brooding is by the female only. She was the Regional Coordinator for the Long Point region for the Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas from 2003–05. The Acadian Flycatcher’s breeding habitat has been broadly characterized as large, mature forest tracts associated with water. 2005. At least in some settings, this species is negatively impacted by openings in the forest canopy (e.g., due to selective logging or tree mortality caused by invasive pests), anthropogenic edges, increasing forest fragmentation, and urbanization (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Bakerman and Rodewald 2006; Hetzel and Leberg 2006; Hoover et al. Territorial males sing frequently throughout the breeding season; females also sing on occasion (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). On a finer scale, habitat degradation has been observed at several Acadian Flycatcher sites due to heavy logging, the spread of invasive alien plants, and new house construction (Recovery Team data). Journal of Field Ornithology 70:514–519. These influxes may double the population in some years (Friesen et al. Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis):Preliminary analysis suggests that persistence of the Canadian population relies on regular immigration of at least small numbers of breeding adults from the adjacent states. Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON. Such ideal habitat conditions are rare within the agriculture–dominated landscape of southern Ontario. However, given the consistency of past survey results, it seems probable that about half of all occupied sites were included in the 2007 surveys. All counties in the Carolinian region now have tree–cutting bylaws except for Essex and Chatham–Kent (OWA 2009). 595 pp. Status in Ontario: Endangered. Twedt, D. 2008. Breeding territories may also be largest in dry upland areas and in drought years (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). This is much larger than average territory sizes reported in the core U.S. range (e.g., 1 ha in Ohio and Pennsylvania; Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Woolfenden et al. Edge–avoidance seems to be less of a factor in forested ravine situations because it will nest in long linear territories that occur in quite narrow (minimum of 80–85 m) belts of riparian forest corridors (Friesen et al. Nest success rates in the species are highly variable from region to region and year to year. Owing to the turnover of small numbers of site–faithful adults, sites containing suitable habitat may be occupied by one or more pairs for several consecutive years, then fall unoccupied for a short period, only to be re–colonized again a few years later. 12 pp. National Recovery Plan for Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), and Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina). 2008. Today, there is relatively little habitat remaining that is suitable for the species. Empidonax virescens. In Canada, the Acadian Flycatcher occurs in very low numbers in the Carolinian area of southern Ontario. Unpublished report for the Acadian Flycatcher & Hooded Warbler Recovery Team. This species is considered a focal species because it is relatively easy to study and because it is considered a sensitive indicator of habitat conditions at a range of scales. Males attract females with their unique song and erratic courtship displays, and establish nesting territories. Speirs,J.M. 2000; Whitehead and Taylor 2002; ONRS 2008). Jalava, J.V., J. D. Ambrose and N.S. [accessed 27 October 2008]. Designations are made on native species for the following taxonomic groups: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, arthropods, molluscs, vascular plants, mosses, and lichens. Leberg. COSEWIC status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. The source of most of the colonists is likely outside of Canada, because the very small Canadian population is near areas of high population density in the United States (e.g., ~200,000 adults in Pennsylvania and ~290,000 in Ohio; PIF 2008). Species at Risk Act, Statutes of Canada 2002, Chapter 29. It winters in Central America and northern South America from Nicaragua to Ecuador and Venezuela. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. Panjabi, B. Altman, J. Bart, C.J. If correct, these figures suggest that roughly half of the potential Acadian Flycatcher habitat in southern Ontario has not been surveyed. 1998 Surveys of Acadian Flycatchers and Hooded Warblers in Ontario. These counts cannot be directly converted into number of breeding pairs or adults. Dowell. records 2006–07). Whitmore. 33 pp. Summary Report, Contract # KW404–07–0824. In the hand, this species can be distinguished from other Empidonax sspecies by a combination of features including size (wing chord 65–80 mm), bill shape and colour, grey legs, and an especially long primary projection (Pyle 1997). Bird Studies Canada, Port Rowan, ON. Males start to arrive in Ontario in mid–May (James 1991). One known breeding site is on First Nations lands at Kettle Point (Recovery Team unpubl. The supply of mature, closed–canopy, open–understorey, interior–forest habitat is a limiting factor in many parts of its range, including southern Ontario. The Acadian Flycatcher is a habitat specialist with specific breeding habitat requirements at various spatial scales (Bakerman and Rodewald 2006). 2006. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, ON and Long Point Bird Observatory, Port Rowan, ON. 2002. Brown, C.R., M.B. 346–347 in McGowan, K.R. Woolfenden, B. and B. Stutchbury. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, ON. Less than half of the known breeding sites are occupied in any given year, and most sites are occupied only sporadically. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of populations? 1986. 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2007). A preliminary population and habitat viability analysis for the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario suggested that the Canadian population is not self–sustainable and may become extirpated without a continuous influx from external populations (Tischendorf 2003). * Formerly described as “Vulnerable” from 1990 to 1999, or “Rare” prior to 1990. 2000). Matthews, K.P. 732 pp. It arose from the need for a single, official, scientifically sound, national listing of wildlife species at risk. The current extent of occurrence (EO) of the Acadian Flycatcher in Canada, as delineated by the range envelope polygon described by occurrences reported during the 2001–2005 Atlas project (Figure 2), is approximately 36,500 km². Status: Locally uncommon regular spring migrant southeast, rare casual elsewhere. This could also be an Alder or Willow Flycatcher. 1999). Partners in Flight estimates a global population of 5.2 million, and rates the species an 11 out of 20 on the Continental Concern Score, indicating a … Annual re–use of particular breeding sites in Ontario is often intermittent or sporadic; hence,“traditional” Acadian Flycatcher sites here show a pattern of intermittent occupancy (Martin 2007; Recovery Team unpubl. The FBMP is a volunteer–based program designed to complement the BBS. BBS trends for New York and Michigan are not reliable due to small sample sizes (Sauer et al. The observed pattern of intermittent site occupancy (site turnover) is consistent with the Canadian Acadian Flycatcher population functioning as a metapopulation, with populations at the site level being semi–isolated and vulnerable to local extinction but linked by dispersion from other sites (Environment Canada 2004). (compiler). Burke, P. 2006. Criterion D (Very Small Population or Restricted Distribution): Meets Endangered D1; population size (60–180 adults) is <250 mature individuals. 2007). the BEAUTIFUL acadian flycatcher is CURRENTLY an endangered species in ontario. 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2006; Chapas–Vargas and Robinson 2007). The Acadian Flycatcher was flagged as a rare species and atlassers were asked to provide detailed documentation. Some of the atlas records with possible breeding evidence likely represent late migrants or prospecting birds. The size of breeding territories in Ontario averaged 2.7 ha (n=10, range 0.76 to 4.09 ha) and 1.94 ha (n=20, range 0.94 to 3.09 ha) in 2006 and 2007, respectively (Burke 2006, 2007b). Birds of the Kingston Region. Females lay one egg per day until a clutch of three or so creamy white, brown-spotted eggs is complete. Biology |
Auk 26:430, Saunders, W.E. During migration this species is found in a broad range of woodland habitats, including open young forests, forest edges and urban woodlands, as well as primary and secondary forests (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; NatureServe 2008). Brood parasitism rates in Ontario are moderate, with 18 instances (13.5%, n=133; ONRS 2008). Predation is the main cause of nest failure in Ontario (Table 1) and elsewhere. Like other tyrant flycatchers, the males and females look alike. The Canadian Field–Naturalist 114:689–691. Marked year–to–year differences in pairing success suggest that the sex ratio of these influxes is skewed towards males, which is consistent with the observed differential timing of spring migration by sex. Cabe. 2000. Butcher, D. Demarest, W.C. Hunter, E. Inigo–Elias, J.A. In Canada, it breeds mostly in the Carolinian Forest Zone in southwestern Ontario. Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Ontario, Second Edition. Recovery Team count data (Table 2) provide evidence that the small population within the Carolinian region has been fairly stable since 1997 (Heagy et al. Threatened. The Acadian Flycatcher nests in mature, closed–canopy forest habitats. The weather wasn’t massively impressive and the first two or three hours of the day passed by with little of note on the cards. Acadian Flycatcher — Photo courtesy of Ron Ridout. Eight sites had records of a single male found on only one occasion. Seven of the known sites (breeding evidence since 1980) are in provincial protected areas (parks, nature reserves, or conservation reserves; Recovery Team unpubl. The Acadian Flycatcher breeds in mature forests, especially deciduous woods, along streams, in ravines, and in swamps. Similarly, the continental trend for the past 10 years (1997–2007) shows a non–significant decline of 0.45%/yr (p=0.33, n=717; Sauer et al. Acadian Flycatcher nests are parasitized by the Brown–headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater). Empidonax virescens (Acadian Flycatcher) is a species of birds in the family tyrant flycatchers. 89 pp. Single–day occurrences of single birds observed in suitable habitat (and sometimes unsuitable habitat) in June are generally considered to be late migrants or wandering non–breeders. Brewer, D., A. Diamond, E.J. Cassin's kingbird. Rare casual … No information is available on nutrition, energetics, metabolism, or temperature regulation (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Abundance data collected by general large–scale bird monitoring programs from the Canadian range are too sparse (only a few detections on BBS, FBMP and OBBA2 point counts) to be used to calculate a meaningful estimate of the Canadian population. Individuals can grow to … Cornell Lab of Ornithology. nee s. Get Started. Species at Risk Act (SARA), 2002. 2003. The Acadian Flycatcher was designated as “Endangered” Species in 2000 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). 1999). Little is known about wintering habitat requirements (NatureServe 2008). The proportion of unpaired birds in the Ontario population is difficult to determine, with estimates ranging from 10% to 50%. Ontario Ministry of Muncipal Affairs and Housing (OMMAH) 2005. In 2007, it was assessed by COSEWIC as Endangered, owing to the rapid spread of anthracnose. Their breasts appear paler than most other empids, but can become strongly washed with yellow in the fall. An estimated 52,000 birds (1.1% of the global population) breed in the fragmented forests of the Lower Great Lakes/St. Only small numbers breed in Canada. Woolfenden, B.E., B.M. Is there an observed continuing decline in number of mature individuals? Gloria Goulet, Coordinator – Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge. Quick Facts: Cadman, M.D., D.A. The Acadian Flycatcher is a small migratory songbird. However, a more recent meta–analysis of area and edge effects found that its occurrence is consistent with edge–avoidance and that it does not show significant patch–size effects (Parker et al. Loss of preferred nest tree species (hemlock, beech, flowering dogwood) owing to invasive forest insect pests and pathogens. FBMP sites consist of three to six off–road point count stations situated in large mature forests in which little or no active forest management is underway. Breeding bird atlas detailed distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario\ from 2001–05, Table 1. Quick Facts: It is a rare breeding bird in Canada but has nested at both the Nursery Tract and the Turkey Point … However, it will take many decades before such habitat reaches sufficient maturity to support Acadian Flycatchers. It has greenish-brown upperparts, a grayish-white throat, a white lower breast, a light yellow belly, white wing bars, and a white eye ring. Immigration of individuals from the United States may be essential to maintaining the overall Canadian population (Tischendorff 2003; Martin 2007), provided that suitable habitat is retained here. Weir, R.D. 1999). 1994. iii COSEWIC Assessment Summary Assessment Summary – April 2010 Common name Acadian Flycatcher Scientific name Empidonax virescens Status Endangered Reason for designation In Canada, this species is … 2000. Reasons for designation:In Canada, this species is restricted to certain types of mature forest in southern Ontario. Project Wildspace, Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario Region. Forest regeneration over the past century has also been more extensive in the northeastern United States than in southern Ontario. Stutchbury, and E.S. The total global breeding range (extent of occurrence) is approximately 2,400,000 km², while the total global wintering range is approximately 700,000 km² (derived from Ridgeley et al. The total Canadian population consists of an estimated 50 mated pairs (25–75 pairs in any given year) with an IAO of ≤200 km² scattered over a relatively large area (EO of some 35,000 km²). The Willow Flycatcher is endangered because of its loss of habitat due to cowbird parasitism and its competition with the Alder Flycatcher.
EO is >20,000 km². and P.R. The Canadian population is at the northern limit of the species’ breeding range, the edge of which is presumably limited by climatic tolerances because apparently suitable forest habitat is extensive farther north outside the current breeding range (Deschamps and McCracken 1998). Most individuals occur in forests more than 40 hectares in size. 1987. COSEWIC status reports are working documents used in assigning the status of wildlife species suspected of being at risk. 2005). Guide to the Partners in Flight Population Estimates Database. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). and A.D. Rodewald. Zink, R.M. Male Acadian Flycatchers, Empidonax virescens, obtain extra–pair fertilizations with distant females. Incubation is done solely by the females and lasts 13 to 15 days; males actively defend the nesting sites. Other COSEWIC reports not yet available may include those species assessed as Extinct, Data Deficient or Not at Risk.
Any further fragmentation or conversion of forest habitat in the Carolinian region is of particular concern, given the current conditions (low regional forest cover and high fragmentation). Consequently, Acadian Flycatcher breeding habitat is also vitally important to many other Canadian species at risk. ** Formerly described as “Not In Any Category”, or “No Designation Required.”*** Formerly described as “Indeterminate” from 1994 to 1999 or “ISIBD” (insufficient scientific information on which to base a designation) prior to 1994. data). vii + 12 pp. 340 pp. Highly endangered species! Estimated Canadian population (individuals): 110 . Mulvihill. Gauthier, J. and Y. Aubry (eds). The global breeding population is restricted to eastern North America, and it is widely distributed in forested landscapes in the eastern United States. Acadian Flycatcher – Moucherolle vertRange of Occurrence in Canada: Ontario. Dusky flycatcher. The small Canadian population is contiguous with much larger populations in adjacent parts of the United States including New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. Habitat area requirements of breeding forest birds of the Middle Atlantic states. COSEWIC Assessment and Status Report on the Acadian Flycatcher in Canada (2010-09-03), Response Statement - Acadian Flycatcher (2010-12-02), Recovery Strategy for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) in Canada (2012-02-17), Multi-species Action Plan for Point Pelee National Park of Canada and Niagara National Historic Sites of Canada (2016-07-05), COSEWIC Annual Report - 2010 (2010-09-03), Explanation for issuing permit(#SARA-OR-2007-0056), persuant to the provisions of section 73 of SARA (2007-05-24), Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species – November 2010 (2010-12-02), Description of residence for Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in Canada (2007-08-07), Access Government of Canada activities and initiatives, Recovery Strategy for the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) and the Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina) in Canada, Multi-species Action Plan for Point Pelee National Park of Canada and Niagara National Historic Sites of Canada, Consultation on Amending the List of Species under the Species at Risk Act: Terrestrial Species – November 2010, Description of residence for Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in Canada. 2009). 2008), the overall Acadian Flycatcher population in North America appears to be reasonably well monitored by the BBS (detected on 973 routes situated throughout the US breeding range). Walkinshaw, L.H. Recovery Team |
The Acadian Flycatcher is listed as Endangered federally and appears on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. Federation of Ontario Naturalists, Don Mills, ON. Due to high fragmentation, less than 2% of the Carolinian region consists of interior forest (>100 m from edge), and less than 0.5% is deep interior forest (>200 mfrom edge; Cadman 1999). 2004; Sauer et al. Adults have olive upperparts, darker on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have a white eye ring, white wing bars and a wide bill. Flaxman, M. 2004. Lawrence Plain (North American Bird Conservation Region 13), Priorities, Objectives and Recommended Actions. Are they endangered? The Acadian Flycatcher is also listed as Endangered under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act, 2007 (ESA; Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources 2008a, b). Date of Listing (yyyy-mm-dd): 2003-06-05. Update COSEWIC Status Report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. Eagles, and F.M. Birds of the Cedar Point Biological Station area, Keith and Garden Counties, Nebraska: Seasonal occurrence and breeding data. This rate is similar to the annual reproductive productivity of about 1.6 fledged young per pair (n=193, range 0 to 7 young per pair per season) over a 6–year study in Ohio but about half the seasonal fecundity rate of 1.8 female fledglings per adult female (n=30) per season reported in a study in an extensively forested area in Virginia (Fauth and Cabe 2005; Rodewald and Shustack 2008). Mitigation and Adaption Strategies for Global Change 13:517–540. 2004b. BirdLife International. Despite improved protection available for woodlands in southern Ontario under the Planning Act and county tree–cutting bylaws, conversion and encroachment on forests for agriculture, rural residential developments, utility corridors, and urban sprawl is still occurring. Acadian Flycatcher Recovery Program: ACFL surveys in 2005 at core sites and follow–up stewardship work. Breeding and wintering distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher (from Ridgeley et al. 2007). This species does exhibit some degree of flexibility in that it can nest successfully in relatively narrow wooded ravine situations, and uses several different tree and shrub species for nest–support. This includes deciduous forests in the eastern United States west to Texas. Extremely similar to several other species, especially Alder and Willow Flycatchers. BBS data have been used to calculate population estimates and population trends at various geographic scales (Rich et al. Version 7.0. Dark wings with distinct white wingbars. All are also impacted by an extensive list of invasive species (fungi, insects, disease, earthworms, plants, etc.) As new sites are discovered, the total number of known sites has gradually increased. Beardmore, H. Berlanga, P.J. 2005). The Acadian Flycatcher: Population viability and critical habitat in southern Ontario, Canada. Since 1920, there have been further losses in the amount of original forest that has never been cleared but this has been offset by a dramatic increase in second–growth replacement forests on abandoned agricultural land (Larson et al. The Second Atlas of Breeding Birds for New York State. plus appendices. 35 pp. Nests with a cowbird chick rarely fledge any Acadian Flycatcher young (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Surveys carried out in 1997 found 34 singing males and yielded an estimate of fewer than 50 pairs. Important food items include wasps, bees, ants, moths, beetles, and flies (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). It winters in Central America and northern South America from Nicaragua to Ecuador and Venezuela. The distribution map presented in the most recent Ontario breeding bird atlas is considered representative of the Acadian Flycatcher’s actual distribution in 2001–05 (Martin 2007; see Figure 3). SAR Policy 4.1 22 July 2008. However, as Martin (2007) notes, much of the recent increase can be attributed to directed searches carried out by experienced field biologists working on behalf of the Recovery Team rather than an actual increase in numbers. Clutch size is generally 3 eggs and ranges from 1 to 4. James, R.D. Dawn Burke, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, London, Ontario. However, this is almost certainly a gross overestimate, because coarse–scale habitat modelling does not sufficiently capture the fine–scale habitat features that are required by this species (J. McCracken pers. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of locations? Throughout its breeding range, the Acadian Flycatcher is a habitat specialist, nesting in mature closed–canopy forests with an open understorey. Butcher, D. Demarest, R. Dettmers, E.H. Dunn, W. Easton, W.C. Hunter, E.E. Females appear to have lower return rates than males (Walkinshaw 1966; Rodewald and Shustack 2008). The Committee meets to consider status reports on candidate species. 140/2005. Cadman, M.D., P.F.J. Acadian Flycatcher. Several municipalities have designated significant wildlife habitat, significant woodlands and valley lands in their Official Plans.
The species is threatened by forestry practices, particularly those that target removal of large trees. Reason for designationIn Canada, this species is restricted to certain types of mature forest in southern Ontario. 2006. Cadman. There is no information on its distribution in Ontario prior to the late 1800s, by which time the landscape of southern Ontario had been radically altered by the conversion of the extensive woodlands and wetlands to agricultural cropland and pasture (Austen et al. It also is listed as Endangered provincially and is protected under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act, 2007. Rodenhouse, N.L., S.N. that have fundamentally altered forest composition, structure and ecological functions. In the United States, the species is nationally secure (N5B) (NatureServe 2009) and occurs in 33 states with varying sub-national ranks 1994). Although previously considered a solitary species, high rates of extra–pair fertilizations were documented in Pennsylvania, with most extra–pair fertilizations involving males that had forayed a kilometre or more from their territory rather than the males in neighbouring territories (Woolfenden et al. Other members of this suite that are presently identified as species at risk in Canada include Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea; Endangered), Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina; Threatened), Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea; Special Concern), and Louisiana Waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla; Special Concern). Is there an observed, inferred, or projected continuing decline in extent of occurrence? Males and females look alike. Return rates of breeding birds in the US range from 18% (n=234) in fragmented forests in Indiana, to 45% (n=31) in forest fragments in Michigan, and 52% (n=52) in continuous forest in Virginia (Walkinshaw 1966; Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Fauth and Cabe 2005). songs, or to fly out to catch insects. Population status and productivity of Acadian Flycatchers in the Carolinian forest – 2004 Report. This assumes that potential habitat is evenly distributed throughout the EO, which is probably not the case, because private lands are generally exposed to higher intensities of forest management than public lands. Hoover, J.P., T.H. The reliability of this estimate, which is based on BBS data, is considered good (PIF 2008). Due to its current Endangered status, the Acadian Flycatcher is identified as a Priority Species in the landbird conservation plan for southern Ontario (OPIF 2008). In 1978, COSEWIC designated its first species and produced its first list of Canadian species at risk. Unpublished report to the Endangered Species Recovery Fund, World Wildlife Fund Canada and Canadian Wildlife Service. It lives in mature, canopied forests. 24 September 2007. No estimates available for the other 19 squares. Since 1997, the small, localized population in Canada has been the focus of extensive surveys and intensive studies carried out under the direction of the national Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team. The Ontario Planning Act and the Provincial Policy Statement (PPS) discourages development in the “significant habitat” of endangered and threatened species, including the Acadian Flycatcher (OMMAH2005). Habitat in the eastern United States is much more extensive than in Ontario, including large areas of high forest cover in the core part of the species’ breeding range. Alain Filion (COSEWIC Secretariat) and Andrew Couturier (Bird Studies Canada) produced the breeding range map and performed the extent of occurrence calculations. Technical Series No. Breeding distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario, showing overall extent of occurrence, Figure 3. Almost all atlas squares (10 x 10 km) in the Carolinian and Lake Simcoe–Rideau atlas regions in southern Ontario received some coverage in both atlases and most received more than 20 hours of coverage. Across the breeding range, there are geographic differences in the specific habitats selected and in its response to landscape characteristics. Auk 124:1267–1280. Mean clutch size for Acadian Flycatcher nests in Ontario is 2.9 ± 0.4 (range 1–4, n=104), which is similar to elsewhere (ONRS 2008). The Acadian Flycatcher, as with other members of this genus, is best identified by song. Journal of Wildlife Management 70:532–538. Fauth, P.T. comm. The species is mostly monogamous, but up to 20% of males in Ontario have two or more females nesting in their territory. Criterion B (Small Distribution Range and Decline or Fluctuation): Does not meet criterion. Ohio Breeding Bird Atlas II. Habitat protection for endangered, threatened and extirpated species under the Endangered Species Act, 2007. When was Acadian Ambulance created? 1910. Bakerman, M.H. Observed percent change in total number of mature individuals over the last 10 years, or 3 generations. Nearby areas with a more open canopy and higher regeneration cover are important during the critical post–fledging period (Burke 2007a). 2008a. Acadian Flycatcher. Southern Ontario Woodlands: the conservation challenge. In Ontario, Acadian Flycatchers are typically found either in large patches of mature deciduous forest or in mature, forested ravine settings. It is also protected by the federal Migratory Birds Convention Act. Cadman, P.F.J. 2000. Iñigo–Elias, D.N. pp. 20. Pairs typically return to the same breeding and wintering territories, while young birds often disperse to other sites. The nests are suspended hammock-wise from the fork or crotch of a shade tree 2.5-4.5 meters above the ground. 2005). Over the past 20 years there have been a series of coordinated efforts to survey and monitor populations of rare breeding birds in Ontario, including the Acadian Flycatcher. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. The northern range limit extends from southeast Minnesota, across southern Wisconsin, southern Michigan, southwestern Ontario, and western and southeastern New York (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). 2008. SARA Status: Schedule 1, Endangered Image of Acadian Flycatcher Top Description The Acadian flycatcher is an olive-green songbird with a long and slightly forked tail, white wing bars, and a yellowish belly. The Acadian Flycatcher is identified as one of 195 species of Continental Importance in the North American Landbird Conservation Plan because 98% of its global population breeds within the Eastern Avifaunal Biome, and agencies in that avifaunal region have a high stewardship responsibility for the conservation of this species (Rich et al. Blancher, M.S.W. The Acadian flycatcher breeds only in North America, primarily in the eastern half of the United States where the species is widespread and common. This report benefited from comments received from Peter Blancher, Ruben Boles, Dick Cannings, Britt Corriveau, Alan Dextrase, Lyle Friesen, Vicki Friesen, Christian Friis, Richard Knapton, Darren Irwin, Marty Leonard, Angela McConnell, Jon McCracken, Patrick Nantel, and Don Sutherland. 11 pp. Becker, and P.S. 1997; McCracken et al. The Acadian Flycatcher is a medium– to long–distance neotropical migrant. That said, in Ontario, this species appears to do well in long, linear, forested ravine situations that may be no more than 100–200 m in width. Update COSEWIC status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. Likewise, the future breeding distribution and abundance of this species in the northeastern United States is predicted to increase under various climate change scenarios due to a northward shift in habitat features (Matthews et al. Ottawa. Lawrence Plain BCR, which includes southern Ontario, the south shores of lakes Erie and Ontario (New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania), and the St. Lawrence River valley (Quebec and New York) (PIF 2008). Sites known to be occupied (1985–2004) are about evenly divided between these two settings (Recovery Team unpubl. On the Lake Erie shoreline, it is considered a regular but rare spring migrant at Point Pelee (ca. comm. This monotypic species, first described in 1810, is one of 15 species in the genus Empidonax in the New World tyrant flycatcher (Tyrannidae) family (Whitehead and Taylor 2002; Clements 2008). In Canada, the Acadian flycatcher occurs in very low numbers in the Carolinian area of southern Ontario. Acadian Flycatcher -- Photo courtesy of Ron Ridout. Shustack. Education. Outside of the breeding season, this species uses a broad range of habitats, but deforestation on the wintering grounds is a potential concern (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Search. 2009 and references cited therein). Other tyrant flycatchers. Total field effort in these regions increased moderately during OBBA2. In the absence of forest resource inventory (FRI) mapping for southern Ontario, it is difficult to quantify the amount and quality of Acadian Flycatcher habitat in Canada or to assess recent trends. Alder flycatcher. The Breeding Birds of Québec: Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Southern Québec. Revised edition. From the southern areas of New Hampshire, west through Maine, through New York to the southern boundaries of the Great Lakes. Are there extreme fluctuations in number of mature individuals? The first nesting records for Canada date from 1884 and 1910 (Saunders 1909, 1910). Most public forest lands within the Carolinian region have been surveyed at least once for Acadian Flycatcher by the recovery team over the past 12 years. The effort–adjusted probability of observation for Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario increased significantly (by 86%) between the first (1980–85) and second (2001–2005) atlases (Cadman et al. Partners in Flight. This species was one of a suite of rare birds included in the Ontario Rare Breeding Bird Program (ORBBP), the Ontario Birds at Risk (OBAR) program, and surveys of Carolinian forest birds (Austen et al. 2000). 2009. Sign up with Google. 2006. The species was designated Endangered by the … The females choose breeding sites and build nests of vegetal debris and spider silk. Status re–examined and confirmed in November 2000 and April 2010. Data on population change prior to the 1980s are scarce. 2000). plus appendices. Endangered. 2008). Preliminary findings from the habitat modelling work by Flaxman (2004) can be used to make a rough estimate of the amount of potential habitat that has not been searched. Territories range in size from 0.5 to 4.0 ha and are often situated close to streams, vernal pools, or other water features. Multiple territories (up to 3) were found at eight sites. Vicki Mackay and Andrew Pomeraine of Parks Canada provided information on the occurrence of this species in Point Pelee and Georgian Bay Islands National Parks, respectively. Hence, one designatable unit is considered in this report. comm. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Endangered Species Act (ESA) 2007. Eastern Hemlock is a particularly important nesting tree in the northern part of the Acadian Flycatcher’s range (Allen et al. 1999. Acadian Flycatcher territories in Ontario are typically in either mature tableland forests or forested ravines (Bisson et al. Becker, D.A., M.C. Juvenal, Basic, and Alternate plumages are all similar but, on close examination, subtle differences in plumage can often be used to distinguish young birds through to the end of their first breeding season (Pyle 1997). PLEASE NOTE: Not all COSEWIC reports are currently available on the SARA Public Registry. Breeding bird atlas detailed distribution of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario from 2001–05 (from Cadman et al. 1994; Martin 2007). Smith, C.R. 2006). In Canada, it breeds mostly in the Carolinian Forest Zone in southwestern Ontario. 2006. Birds of Nebraska - Online > Species > ACADIAN FLYCATCHER. 2008; Rodewald and Shustack 2008; Rodewald 2009). As with other small passerines, the expected life span is short, and the generation time (average age of breeding adults) is likely 2–3 years. 2008. Huebert, C. 2007. 1999.
The Acadian flycatcher requires large areas of mature undisturbed forest. 617 pp. 1966. In size, it is slightly larger than a house sparrow, and in appearance it is similar to other flycatchers of the genus Empidonax. It also is separated from Acadian Flycatcher by its yellow chin and throat. Black legs, feet. Small flycatcher with a big, peaked head and relatively long bill. Since 1996, studies of the Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario have been coordinated by the Acadian Flycatcher/Hooded Warbler Recovery Team (Friesen et al. ), it is illegal to take, transport, possess, process, or sell any wild animal on the Wisconsin Endangered and Threatened Species List (ch. Preliminary quantitative analysis (Tischendorf 2003; see, Persistence in Canada apparently reliant upon immigration from, Global population of 4.7 million individuals breeding in eastern United States. Information on the distribution of Acadian Flycatcher in Ontario benefited greatly from the efforts of numerous volunteers participating in the first and second Ontario Breeding Bird Atlas, the Ontario Rare Breeding Bird Program, and the Ontario Birds at Risk projects. Are there extreme fluctuations in index of area of occupancy? Locally uncommon regular breeder southeast, accidental northeast. This was followed by a trend of reoccupation of its former range starting in the 1960s, likely facilitated by maturation of second–growth forests in the northeastern United States (Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Productivity may not be sufficient to maintain the Canadian population, and its survival here may be quite dependent on immigration from the large Acadian Flycatcher population in the United States, particularly from Great Lake states bordering southern Ontario. Nesting success of a songbird in a complex floodplain forest landscape in Illinois, USA: local fragmentation vs. vegetation structure. 1997. Best distinguished from other flycatchers by habitat and voice. 2004; PIF 2008). Both sexes breed at one year of age. Widespread agricultural drainage has also dramatically altered water tables and moisture regimes. Kennedy, A. Martell, A. Panjabi, D.N. As such, declines or reduced productivity in Acadian Flycatcher populations in adjacent jurisdictions could adversely impact the Canadian population. The Hooded Warbler is listed as Threatened nationally under the Species at Risk Act and Special Concern provincially under Ontario’s Endangered Species Act, 2007. In Canada, the Acadian Flycatcher occurs in very low numbers in the Carolinian area of southern Ontario. Woolfenden, B. and B. Stutchbury. 1998. NatureServe. Population viability is further compromised by reduced seasonal reproductive output, most likely due to reduced habitat quality (e.g., fragmentation, proximity to forest edge) that leads to elevated rates of nest predation and brood parasitism. Black phoebe. Plumages of both sexes are similar but males are significantly larger than females and the combination of wing chord and tail length measurements can be used to discriminate between the sexes (Wilson 1999). Version: North American Landbird Conservation Plan 2004. 4 pp. University of Waterloo Press, Waterloo, ON. Adults have olive upperparts, darker on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have a white eye ring, white wing bars and a wide bill. The Acadian Flycatcher is common in the eastern United States. The Ontario ESAprotects listed species from harm. Previous COSEWIC status reports on this species were produced by Ross James (2000), and Annette Page and Mike Cadman (1994). The Acadian flycatcher is a neotropical migrant. The Acadian Flycatcher, Empidonax virescens, is a drab flycatcher with olive–green upperparts, pale underparts and a pale eye–ring. North American Bird Bander 33:67–68. The current Canadian distribution represents approximately 1% of the total global breeding range. Systematic Zoology 33:205–216. [accessed February 2009]. At a finer scale, numbers of birds at the site and county level have fluctuated over the past few decades, with local declines and extirpations in some areas (e.g., Chatham–Kent sites, see Table 2) being offset by more birds and additional occupied sites in other areas (e.g., Norfolk County). B L W W W Family Latin Name; 5.75" 14.6cm: 9" 22.9cm: 0.46oz 13g: … Acadian flycatcher. Volume II. ACFLs in Elgin, Middlesex and Chatham–Kent: 2001 summary. However, habitat shift for species associated with mature forests, such as the Acadian Flycatcher, is predicted to occur relatively slowly (at least one century), due to the lag time associated with tree migration and longevity (Matthews et al. 2004. COSEWIC comprises members from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal entities (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership, chaired by the Canadian Museum of Nature), three non–government science members and the co–chairs of the species specialist subcommittees and the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge subcommittee. Endangered and threatened species; Extinct species; Unaccepted species; News & updates; ACADIAN FLYCATCHER. There are few direct observations of nest predation events but likely nest predators in southern Ontario include other bird species (Blue Jay, Cyanocitta cristata, and forest raptors), small mammals (squirrels, chipmunks, and mice), and arboreal snakes (Gray Ratsnake, Pantherophis spiloides, and Eastern Foxsnake, P. gloydi; Whitehead and Taylor 2002). Appearance and population trend. The Acadian Flycatcher is listed as Endangered federally and appears on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. In Ontario, eggs are laid between June 8 and July 30. 2006; Becker et al. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens in Canada. 5. Although annual site occupancy is somewhat intermittent in Ontario owing to natural turnover of individuals, the species displays strong long–term attachment to particular sites, and routinely recolonizes them so long as they retain favourable breeding habitat. KW405–05–0215, Species at Risk Recovery Program, Environment Canada. Acadian Flycatcher, pp. The Acadian Flycatcher is listed as Endangered federally and appears on Schedule 1 of the Species at Risk Act. None of the 156 Acadian Flycatchers banded during migration in Canada from 1955 to 1995 were encountered elsewhere, and no foreign banded birds were recovered in Canada during that period (Brewer et al. McCracken, J., D. Martin, I.Bisson, M. Gartshore, and R. Knapton. Currently, very little of the forest remains and the remnants are highly fragmented. Acadian flycatcher adults have greenish-brown upperparts, a pronounced white eye ring, and buffy wing bars. Conservation genetics of the Acadian Flycatchers–an interim report. Quick Links: |
It is very similar in appearance to other Empidonax flycatchers, and during the breeding season is best distinguished by its distinctive peet–sa song, other characteristic vocalizations, and habitat. How Much Habitat is Enough? The species is thought to have been more widespread and numerous in Canada prior to the clearing of forests in the early 1800s. Effects of selective logging on forest bird populations in a fragmented landscape. COSEWIC. 2008. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario, 2001–2005. Dusky-capped flycatcher. Austen, M.J.W., M.D. Bridget Stutchbury, Professor of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario. In particular, current microhabitat (site and stand)–level information on forest age, canopy closure, and forest structure is not available (OMNR 2006). Également disponible en français sous le titre Évaluation et Rapport de situation du, Generation time (average age of parents in the population). 1987; Cadman et al. Polygyny rates in Ontario are variable (e.g., 7 of 29 males in 2002–03, 3 of 16 territorial males in 2007) and appear to be higher than elsewhere (e.g., 3 in 135 territories in Pennsylvania; Woolfenden and Stutchbury 2004a,b; Woolfenden et al. The Acadian has longer primary projection than those two similar species, but that is hard to gauge without more photos. Coordinated surveys of known and potential Acadian Flycatcher breeding habitat in southern Ontario were carried out in 1997, 1998, 2002, and 2007 (Heagy et al.